The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis


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Shop By Category. My Orders. Track Orders. Change Language. English Arabic. Important Links. Follow Us. App Download. US UK. Thank you for subscribing! Please check your email to confirm your subscription. Our Stores. Results for - meiji. But Pusan remained essentially a Japanese settlement which must be equated with foreign cities in Japan such as Kobe and Yokohama. Thus one encounters frequent references to secret trade, and once the Bakufu fell and Japanese seclusion was abandoned, it was inevitable that these western trading clans should seek to open Korea and to restore and expand the old trade.

In short, the geographical position of the Korean capital and the suzerainty relationship with China were both due mainly to the need for protection from Japanese invaders. For Japan, it was necessary to destroy this relationship and to prevent Chinese troops from pouring across the Yalu before she could safely invade and occupy Korea. Once that had been done, she could pursue her centuries-old designs on Korean grain and labour. The Hakata merchants likewise played a key role in this mining development, for it was they who brought skilled men from China and Korea to improve the smelting processes.

The civil wars and consequent decline of the national capital meant the cultural as well as the political and economic emergence of the provinces. Yamaguchi became a great cultural centre which attracted nobles, scholars, poets and painters. Throughout the Sengoku period, new ideas and learning continued to enter Yamaguchi from Korea and China. Thus it is not surprising that Jesuit Francis Xavier, after entering Japan at Kagoshima in and touring as far as Kyoto, decided that Yamaguchi was the most suitable place for his headquarters. They were forced to leave Hiroshima and make their castle town in the small Japan sea town of Hagi.

The first tribal mission to China was in Thus one is looking at a system of trade routes, with the Japanese acting largely as middlemen for about years from , bringing goods from Siam, Java, Malacca, etc. The main goods sent by Japan to China and Korea were copper, silver, sulphur, swords and the goods brought from the south.


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In the second half of the sixteenth century, the Europeans penetrated Southeast Asia and Ming sent its own trading ships, so the Japanese role as middleman declined sharply. There they clashed with the Spaniards, who for their part were keen to break the Portuguese monopoly of trade and religion in Japan. In , on the pretext that it had not met its obligations, Satsuma conquered it with the approval of the Shogun, its fleet of ships with modern arms meeting little resistance.

China ties, both ritual and commercial, continued, for Satsuma wanted to profit from this indirect China trade, the Ming ban on trade with Japan having been a great blow. From the time Shimazu entered the islands the people suffered cruelly because of the double exploitation by Satsuma and their own king Gabe — But this trading wealth enabled Satsuma to restore its fortunes, and by the end of the eighteenth century it was probably the wealthiest and strongest clan.

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Tosa Wild and rugged country effectively separated Tosa from her nearest neighbours, yet it was no isolated outpost, for it looked out onto the Pacific and depended largely on the sea. In the Sengoku period, Satsuma ships sailing to Sakai could not pass through the Yamaguchi-controlled entrance to the Inland Sea, so they came via Tosa.

Its presence on this trade route meant it was in regular touch with two advanced regions, Kansai and Satsuma. Nor was it intellectually isolated. He returned to open a juku in Kyoto, then also taught in Edo. Thus Tosa was not isolated either commercially or culturally. Politically, too, it was a part of national movements. He died in He and seventy-two followers were executed and their heads displayed to the public gaze Sadler His successor, Tadayoshi, greatly developed his territory.

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New industries were developed, harbours improved, and large areas of land brought under cultivation. This broad class division is clearly seen in the Meiji period. The two largest clans in northern Shikoku were shinhan Tokugawa family clans , for they were assigned to sons Ieyasu produced late in life.

Thus, in the Bakumatsu period, they were tightly bound to the Tokugawa cause. Tosa, on the other hand, had greater freedom of action, for its rulers were merely Tokugawa allies, while its lower samurai were generally anti-Bakufu. His first aim was to follow the Chinese model and to extract tribute from his neighbours. In his troops crossed over into Korea, and when the Indian Vice-Consul sent a message, he replied by relating how he had united Japan and was about to take China, whence it would be easy to move on and occupy India.

His letters to the Philippines were even more blunt in referring to conquest. Hideyoshi and Nabeshima Saga had long regarded Satsuma as their traditional enemy. Thus their armies fought alongside Hideyoshi against Satsuma. Within two years of the Satsuma campaigns, Hideyoshi had taken over Nagasaki and entrusted it to the Hizen Saga General Nabeshima, a public declaration of the closeness of their relationship.

He himself would make his headquarters in Ningpo because of its importance as a trading centre.

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Like Hideyoshi, he wished to switch his capital to the mainland, and earnestly begged that he be given new domains in either Korea or China. Nabeshima and the Tokugawas Like those of Hakata, the Hizen merchants helped organize supplies for Korea, and the Japanese defeat came as a great blow. Though Nabeshima was on the side of the western alliance at Sekigahara ibid. The Nabeshimas responded by serving the Tokugawas faithfully. Being thus responsible for Nagasaki, and situated between Nagasaki and the administrative centre, Hita, Saga was truly incorporated into the Bakufu system, and the Bakufu ties were strengthened by marriage alliances.

First, its traditional enemy was Satsuma, and Nabeshima had in effect won his daimiate by fighting with Hideyoshi against Shimazu. Hence it was, at least initially, well represented in the Meiji government, especially in positions dealing with foreigners. Third, its position at Nagasaki alerted Saga to all the dangers posed by the West. It built up its own navy and navigation school, and these may be regarded as the forerunners of the Japanese Navy. The association with Nagasaki inevitably meant that Saga became one of the most progressive clans, and its schools attracted many outside students.

porpaidensalt.ml But defence and trade were to go hand in hand: he hoped to use the Amakusa products, especially sugar, to trade with the Ezo sea products ibid. He also planned to develop Amakusa mines and timber to pay for warships, and these could then be used to back overseas expansion. The point to stress is that expansion into Ezochi was regarded as a part of, and not an alternative to, general expansion in other directions.

In Nagayama Sadatake was sent to tour Tohoku to investigate ways of Saga helping to develop and defend this region.

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After the Treaty, Hori Toshihiro was appointed as Hakodate magistrate. Shima kept a record of his travels which created considerable interest. Here we have a clear picture of public debate being officially promoted and carried on with great vigour. In the Seihen, a distinction is often made between the military and civilian factions bu and bun. Probably a more important distinction is that between the military and commercial factions.

They envisioned military expansion, but they must be regarded as ideologues. There was another school of more modern and pragmatic men who sought to expand for commercial reasons. Of course, the division was not simple and clear-cut, for many of the latter claimed to be ideologues, while some of the Emperor party were not averse to commercial gain. Yet it remains a valid and useful distinction, and the Saga clan must be seen as belonging to this second school.

Late in the Ansei period, it looked as though Saga would obtain Amakusa from Ii, but his assassination ended such hopes. This was used as a trading post, and Tanaka persuaded Hizen merchants to send ships to trade at Nemuro and Kushiro. Big shipowners such as Taketomi Heisaku and Taketomi Gihachi sent ships and made a great profit ibid.

Thus Saga had long been interested in Ezochi and had developed significant trade. This it hoped to develop as part of a wider trade network. Historians frequently bring their opposition down to questions of personal ambition, but it must be seen as the climax to a much longer story. In Dazai-fu was made the administrative centre handling relations with Korea and China.

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Kuroda made his capital at Nakatsu and his son married a daughter of the Shogun. They were rewarded with over , koku in Chikuzen. Hakata lies east of the Naka River, but from Kuroda drained the marshy land west of the river and built a strong castle.

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The name of this area he changed from Fukusaki to Fukuoka in honour of his forebears who came from Fukuoka in Bizen. Thereafter Fukuoka was a bushi town, Hakata a merchant town. The Kurodas took no direct part in trade, but left it to the merchants, both the great old Hakata families and the new merchants who had followed them from Bizen.

The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis
The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis
The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis
The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis
The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis
The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis
The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis The Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism: A Re-interpretation of the 1873 Crisis

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