Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion)

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Chapter 2: Big Week

With the massive increase in aircraft production came a commensurate increase in aircrew training. From mid August , the U. In , fewer than 1, pilots graduated basic flight training, and in that figure had grown to , Over the course of the war , trainees flunked out or died in training accidents. A comparison of two years tells the story:. And this was just in the continental U. There were many thousands more wrecks and deaths overseas. Looking at totals for the entire war is even more sobering.

The U. But another 25, died in accidents. More than half of these died in the continental U. There were 21, lost due to accidents in the U. Many more planes were lost due to pilot error or mechanical failure than were shot down by the enemy. More than 1, were lost while being delivered to their duty stations from the U. So the danger of non-combat flying did not end with the conclusion of training.

The planes continued to be unreliable, and to make things worse, once overseas, many green pilots were given the controls of planes in which they had little to no flying experience. As the figures show, non-combat flying continued to be extremely hazardous whether in training in the U. The courage displayed by aircrews in combat over Germany and Japan, and the losses they sustained, is one of the most memorable stories of World War II.

But it should not be forgotten that nearly 15, young men died in training accidents without ever leaving the United States. Although they never faced flak or Messerschmitts, their sacrifice was as real and memorable as those shot down over Germany. For the reason that the child is trying to understand himself and his world, the interest in his own, yet infantile sexuality is growing [26].

In this area, the child experiences obvious boundaries, due to the lacking physical development; in this context, Erikson mentions the Freudian "Oedipus complex" [27].

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With boys, this stage is characterized as phallic and suggests pleasure in attack and conquest. In contrast, in girls this turns to modes of receiving. Their approach is either a more aggressive form of snatching by jealous conquest or the milder form of making oneself "attractive and endearing" [28].

Messerschmitt Bf operational history - Wikipedia

The child basically tries to assume the role of the same-sex parent, while the opposite-sex parent is the target of the seductive behavior. Due to the focus on the environment, the child does not feel rivalry towards younger siblings, but instead towards those who were there first. The child enters the contest for favored position with one of the parents in order to feel resignation, guilt and anxiety with the inevitable failure. Bound for failure, he is indulging in reenactments and fantasies, because he is not able to defeat the adult and not "mighty" enough to assume their functions.

At the same time, so Erikson, conscience develops during this stage, which he calls "governor of initiative" [30]. Now the child knows already during the act, if he is acting right or wrong and measures himself and the parents by their deeds. The child begins now not only to be ashamed for what he has done, when it is discovered, but he begins to fear the discovery per se and to feel guilty for merely the thought and the actions.

Erikson calls this the cornerstone of morality in the individual sense. The successful handling of the crisis at this stage leads to the child arising from it with an unbroken initiative. If the conflict is not appropriately addressed, it leads to an overzealous conscience, which is also going to hamper and restrict initiative in later stages of life, or to overcompensate.

At this stage, a balance has to be found between a healthy dose of initiative and a normal regulation authority.

In this stage, from the sixth year of life up to puberty, there is no new source of inner support and consequently it is also called latency period or stage Freud [32] , because violent drives of sexual development are temporarily dormant. Erikson describes this stage also as " … a lull before the storm of puberty … ". If a conviction can summarize the first stage with "I am what hope I have and give", in the second stage with "I am what I can freely", in the third stage with "I am what I can imagine I will", so it is in the fourth stage, that "I am what I can learn to make work" [34] gains priority.

The child is more open to the world and has a growing need to be productive, to learn something new, to contribute to the world of adults, and tob e recognized by it. Erikson calls this desire a "sense of industry" [35].

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Hence, for the child as opposed to the adult, play is not a means to flee reality, but rather a mechanism to cope with reality, which is increasingly important to the child. The play alone, however, is according to Erikson not enough for the development. The child wants to be useful and accomplish something, he develops pleasure in knowledge, determination, precision, perfection, and endurance, and he wants to create something.

Erikson Scientific Essay, 24 Pages, Grade: 1,0. S S Stephanie Scheck Author.

Messerschmitt Bf operational history - Wikipedia

Having almost attained their goal, they saw their efforts frustrated and were refused the fruits of their hard work. This was the general feeling among Lufthansa staff during the war and early post-war period. The Atlantic orientation, however - highly successful in their view - was to create the main strategic impulse for the re-foundation of the Lufthansa in In all European countries, subsidising the aviation industry was also based on military considerations. In Germany, this was particularly true after However, the generous support given to aviation in the s also had predominantly military reasons.

With the friendly toleration of the Reich, Junkers had started to build an aircraft factory near Moscow. The horrendous losses of this enterprise finally led to the Reich balancing the books against a majority share in the Junkers business.

The German Jet Me in A Failed Opportunity – Part I – The Text Message

Lufthansa director Eberhard Milch changed to the post of secretary of state in the Reich's Ministry for Aviation as early as On 13 June he instructed the aircraft industry: "The supreme aim of all work in aviation is the creation of air forces. Lufthansa's freedom in aircraft procurement was limited, as it was only allowed to purchase planes which could be converted to military use. Similarly, many technological innovations of Lufthansa only seem understandable and meaningful in the context of strategical military considerations.

The catapult boats used on the Atlantic routes are just one example. Among others, they were intended to test starts with a catapult, of interest to the navy. And since catapult planes for war vessels were forbidden in the Begriffsbestimmungen see above , these trials were done by the Lufthansa.

The German Jet Me-262 in 1944: A Failed Opportunity – Part I

Another example was the design for the fast aircraft He 70, delivered December of that year world records The model was ordered by Lufthansa for the inner-German express network, but its purchase was evidently based on military considerations. The same is true for the He which, instead of becoming the standard aircraft for express passenger flights, evolved into the standard Luftwaffe bomber. From , Lufthansa ceased to be a company under private law and was merged into the Reich ministry for aviation, to become in effect a subordinate public authority even though the formal status of an Aktiengesellschaft limited company was maintained.

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  • Spurred by the success of the Heinkel He , the world's first true jet which flew in August , the German leadership pressed for the new technology to be put to military use. Known as Projekt P. Design of the new aircraft was directed by Dr. Waldemar Voigt with oversight from Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser. In and , Messerschmitt completed the initial design of the aircraft and began building prototypes to test the airframe.

    While the first designs called for the Me 's engines to be mounted in the wing roots, issues with the power plant's development saw them moved to pods on the wings. Due to this change and the increased weight of the engines, the aircraft's wings were swept back to accommodate the new center of gravity. Overall development was slowed due to continued issues with the jet engines and administrative interference. Additionally, the aircraft that would become the world's first operational jet fighter received mixed support as many influential Luftwaffe officers who felt that the approaching conflict could be won by piston-engine aircraft, such as the Messerschmitt Bf , alone.

    Originally possessing a conventional landing gear design, this was changed to a tricycle arrangement to improve control on the ground.

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    Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion) Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion)
    Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion) Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion)
    Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion) Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion)
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    Messerschmitts Over America-Part 11 (Conclusion)

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