Ah oui autre chose, histoire de flooder un peu plus ce forum lol: Voici une de ses conclusion majeure: And if, at the beginning, the will of independence is not always expressly acknowledged one speaks about "reforms" and especially about autonomy , it is obviously of that which is the matter in the final analysis.
They coexisted with the Moslems who were in superior numbers: Turks, Kurds or refugees, brought by the Russian advances in the Caucasus or the withdrawal of the Ottomans in the Balkans. And when this national claim was expressed in the form of terrorism, it further widened the gap between the two communities 1. On June 1, , the Ottoman government, which belonged then to the Committee of Union and Progress CUP , which came to power by the "Young Turk" revolution of , ordered the transfer of the Armenians of central and eastern Anatolia towards Syria, still a possession of the Ottomans at that time.
The "Young Turk" government was then plunged into the First World War; and it was in a very bad position. The Armenians had formed seven units of Armenian volunteers alongside the Russian army. In addition, the Armenian populations had risen in Anatolia, particularly in Van, to the Northeast, and Zeitoun in Cilicia 2. It is during these transfer operations that an immense number of Armenians perished. This tragedy was the result of a multiplicity of events which proceeded in various places in and , and in which the horror took very diverse forms. The tests, malnutrition, the conditions of hygiene, the epidemics give an account of part of the deaths 3 , but it is necessary to equally consider the massacres which constituted crimes against humanity.
Those were due to intercommunity payments of account in which it is necessary to announce an active share of the Kurds and not only of the Turks; with operations of plundering launched against the convoys, but also with the intrigues of the soldiers charged with the supervision; moreover, it is undeniable, in certain cases at least, that the crimes were perpetrated with the open or tacit co-operation of local authorities. The reality of the massacres, and even their extent, are not questioned by anybody, including those in Turkey.
In fact, the controversy relates to three principal points, of extremely different nature. Initially, the figure of a million and half of victims which is reproduced on the memorial of Marseilles, and which is ritually repeated, are rejected today by many historians, close relations or not of the official Turkish theses. Far from being the more minimalist, the American demographer Justin McCarthy, for example, estimates that the whole of the Armenians of Anatolia did not exceed a million and a half people on the eve of the world-wide conflict, and that, taking into account the figure of survivors, approximately Armenians perished in Anatolia in ; that is to say, about half of the community 4.
If there are forgotten victims, they are well these, and the Turks of today have the right to denounce the partiality of the Western opinion in this respect. Is this because they were only Moslems that they are neglected, or because it would be estimated implicitly that final success of their fellow beings deprives them of the statute of martyrs? Which view would we thus relate to with the same facts, if things had turned otherwise, if the Armenians had finally founded, on the soil of the Ottomans, a durable State in Anatolia?
The sole fact of asking the question can seem absurd and scandalous. It is true that the official implication is a precondition to the full application to the Armenian tragedy of the term of genocide, such as it was forged in and was defined by the Nuremberg process and the convention of the United Nations of It is necessary nevertheless to admit that one does not so far have proof of this governmental implication.
The documents produced by the Armenians, on the order of Talaat Pasha, Minister of the Interior, and of other official top ottomans explicitly ordering the slaughters of men, women, and Armenian children, designated as the "Andonian documents," after the name of their editor, were only forgeries, like historical research proved thereafter 6.
Undoubtedly the ones in charge of the martial court indictments were those judging the governing Young Turks after their fall. In Istanbul in , overwhelming accusations against their "special formations" of which the Armenians would not have besides been the only victims among of others, including the Turks themselves. One cannot be unaware of these precise denunciations, nor to take them either as money in the bank , without having regard to the eminently political character of this process: McCarthy talks about two and a half million Muslim victims principally Turkish for the duration of the Anatolian war during to , of which a million alone came from the zone of the "Armenian vilayet.
The majority of Urartian fortresses have never been excavated though. This article provides an overview of defensive sites with preserved defensive gates in Iranian North-Western Azerbaijan and eastern Turkey. Other parts of the Near East should be studied, but no possibility is offered today. With 2 full-page figures. Abstract : The written account of Sargon's eight campaign provides valuable information about the internal organisation of the Urartian Kingdom. The account, in the form of a letter, describes the campaign trail in detail and a numbers of scholars have suggested many possible routes which Sargon might have taken.
Unfortunately our lack of knowledge of Urartian geography makes the task of reconstructing the trail extremely difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, the text does give some very useful information about the military and especially, the defensive system of the Kingdom of Urartu. In Persian; bilingual title on cover in English and Persian. Iran at the time of the Parthians.
This book is written in Farsi with a wealth of accurate information based on forty years of research by the author regarding Parthian history.
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The author has been involved in the study of the Parthian coins and have come to the conclusion that they are the most accurate and the best source for understanding the Parthian history. Text in Persian; title on cover bilingual in English and Persian and introduction in English. Tarikh-i Ashkaniyan bih rivayat-i sikkah'ha. First and Only Edition.
Signed and inscribed by Baysal. Signed and incribed by Baysal. Annuaire International pour les civilisations de l'Asie Anterieure].
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Turkish publishing activities before and after the new alphabet. In German.
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Les noces noires de Gulizar : Récit
Ottoman architect. An aesthetic analysis. Craig; E. Very Good. Disclaimer:A copy that has been read but remains in excellent condition. Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. Dust jacket quality is not guaranteed. A very good copy.
Lazare Aghayan ()
James was a British war correspondent who accompanied Turkish forces during the war with Bulgaria. Ordered to fix the exact elevation of the Dead Sea and to collect mineral specimens, the expedition was the Navy's first and last to the storied salt lake of the Old Testament.
Its leader, Lt. William F. Lynch, was at once a coolly scientific and devoutly religious man who hope d t o f i n d the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrah and substantiate the account of their destruction in the Book of Genesis. Drawing on his extensive research in Turkey, Jordan, and Israel, the author not only presents first-time details of the expedi ti o n bu t a ls o places the event in a broad historical setting.
Recalling a time when most of Europe had revolted against its monarchies, insurrection had boiled in the port cities of the Mediterranean, the Ottoman Empire had nearly collap sed , an d a l eth al cholera epidemic had swept across the world, Jampoler helps readers understand the crew's fears and expectations. He also offers a taste of life at sea during a decade when sail began to give way to steam. Readers join Lynch and h is men as they la un ch two small boats on the Sea of Galilee at Tiberius, run the Jordan rapids, and plumb the depths of the Dead Sea, while members of the shore party and their Arab escorts follow along on camels and horseback..
Capricorn Books namca [Books from Capricorn Books]. Belgium and the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Leopold I.
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Political and eco-nomic conditions Belgium under Leopold I The Ottoman Empire in the 2nd and 3rd quarters of the 19th century 2. For most of the Armenians this will be the final point. But it is a reality that the people dominating the propaganda have been planning further steps. Simply, after the recognition, they are willing to demand compensations from Turkey and finally to take eastern region of Turkey called Western Armenia in Armenian literature. The second aim seems to be more abstract.
The propaganda works on creating public opinion against Turkey, have been speared out widely. The Armenians are trying to show that Turkey is unfair in every subject. It is not important whether the subject is related to Armenians or not. The aim is draw a picture of a primitive, antidemocratic, savage Turkish State and worse of all a Turkish nation. Naturally two-way relations in the region, in which Armenia has also been involved, have got an important place in the magazine. But it is very interesting that Turkey wants to be shown alone and isolated in the region and to be in a bad and hostile manner against all neighbours.
Oh no, there's been an error
It is intended to emphasize that Turkey is an irreconcilable, irredentist and an aggressive country. Among all the relations, Turkey and Azerbaijan relations are the most important ones. These two countries are shown to be one and they are accused to be the reasons of the economic and political problems of Armenia. Turkey-EU relations: On this subject, we have met numerous articles, interviews and researches.
The thesis repeatedly being claim is that Turkey is not democratic enough, it has a poor economy, and there have been infringements of human rights in Turkey. The impression these articles gives is that if the recognition comes true, all the other negative claims will be wiped off immediately.
Under these circumstances, all the problems between Turkey and EU are applauded and all the proximities are criticized severely. Another subject treated frequently in this magazine is the Kurdish problem. According to the magazine, the Southeastern policy of Ankara is an extension of This Manichean approach can also be seen in the subject of other minorities. Very few articles written about them are mostly about religion.
According to the Armenians of France the most passive part of the Diaspora is the Armenians of Turkey.
Related Anahide, une mémoire arménienne (French Edition)
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